· 中国文化中的莲花寓意 ·
Imagery of Lotus in Chinese Culture
农历5月16日是二十四节气中的小暑，今年对应的是公历7月6日。俗话说“小暑大暑，上蒸下煮”，意味着盛夏将至，入伏可期。尽管小暑还不是最热的时节，但暑气升腾中人们往往易焦易躁，而忽略了“心静自然凉”。此时盛开的莲花，却有宁心安神之效，其“出淤泥而不染，濯清涟而不妖”的亭亭之姿，历来被文人墨客视为高洁的象征。不过，在游船赏莲之前，我们不妨先回溯前史，在明媚夏日穿越时空，静心享受古人生活中的莲花意象，再一睹此时此地的满池红莲，看莲花在漫漫历史长河中清雅绽放。According to the Chinese lunar calendar, the 16th of the fifth month is Xiaoshu (Lesser Heat), the 11th solar term, which falls on July 6th this year. As the old saying goes: “Xiaoshu, Dashu (Great Heat), all steaming and boiling”, meaning that the hottest days will soon arrive after Xiaoshu. Although Xiaoshu does not mark the hottest season, people are getting more fiery and fretful in the heat waves and are tending to forget about how internal calmness leads to external coolness. Well, worry not, the blooming lotus can help ease your mind. The lotus grows out of the mud and remains unstained, thus it has always been the symbol of innocence and integrity in China. Before admiring the lotus blossom, it may be a better idea to look back a bit first and appreciate the imagery of lotus in Chinese history.
Clothing / Accessory
Lotus-shaped Hairpin Ornament
宋 长6.9 宽3.9厘米 现藏于中国国家博物馆
Song dynasty, 6.9 cm in length, 3.9 cm in width, National Museum of China, Beijing
玉器双面镂空雕刻一枝莲，由叶、果实和花组成。折枝花是宋金时期玉雕工艺的创新题材，花枝交错、翻转掩映，形成多层次和立体的效果。从器型看，该器物可能是簪首，其底部可嵌金银材质的簪体。The jade ornament is hollowed-out to form the shape of a double-sided lotus blossom, leaf and seedpod. Flowers on part of the stem is an innovative theme of jade carving in Song and Jin dynasties. The interlaced and interlocking flowers and stems create a multi-layered three-dimensional effect. The shape may signify that it was once inlaid on a gold and silver hairpin.
Blue Damask Cotton-wadded Socks Embroidered with Lotus and Landscape Patterns
清康熙 长24厘米 高46厘米 现藏于北京故宫博物院
Kangxi reign, Qing dynasty, 24 cm in length, 46 cm in height, the Palace Museum, Beijing
绵袜高袎式。袜帮用白色暗花绫做成，袜筒以蓝色暗花缎为面料，袜口镶青绒边，袜内絮丝绵。袜筒部位饰荷花、山水及杂宝纹样，皆用五彩丝线以拉锁绣技法绣制，仅勾勒出纹样的轮廓。此袜装饰简洁清新，纹样取法自然，彰显出穿用者的审美情趣，是康熙时期后妃冬季穿用之袜。A pair of knee length cotton-wadded socks. The bottom is made of white damask with subtle flower patterns, and the top is made of blue satin with outlines of lotus, landscape and auspicious symbols embroidered by multicolored silk thread. The upper edge is inlaid with green velvet, and the inside is lined with silk floss. It is used by the empress and imperial consorts in winter during the reign of emperor Kangxi, with the simple and refreshing style and nature-inspired patterns revealing their aesthetic taste.
Hollowed-out Jade Cup with Egret and Lotus Patterns
明 高7.5厘米 长17.5厘米 宽12.5厘米 现藏于中国国家博物馆
Ming dynasty, 7.5 cm in height, 17.5 cm in length, 12.5 cm in width, National Museum of China, Beijing
玉为青绿色。杯为圆形，口为八瓣莲花口，内壁亦雕有隐起莲瓣，杯内底部雕一凸起花蕊纹，杯外壁镂雕鹭鸶纹、荷花纹与莲瓣纹，花卉纹缠绕于杯外壁四周及底部。鹭鸶与莲花、芦草寓意科举连连及第，仕途得意。此杯造型别致，高贵典雅，纹饰流畅，精美生动，极富层次和立体感，充分反映出明代镂空雕刻技法的精湛。Eight lotus petals form the round rim of the green jade cup. Inside, subtle lotus petals are carved around the cup with a bud-shaped knob at the bottom. Interlocking patterns of egret, lotus blossom and petals are hollowed out, embracing the cup from the outside. Egret, lotus and reed symbolize a success in imperial examination and official career. The proficiency of hollowed-out carving technique of the Ming dynasty is exemplified in the elegant shape, exquisite patterns and multi-layered composition.
Purple Clay Bowl with Lotus Petal Patterns by Huiyigong in Yixing Kiln
清雍正 高5.9厘米 口径12.6厘米 足径5.5厘米 现藏于北京故宫博物院
Yongzheng reign, Qing dynasty, 5.9 cm in height, 12.6 cm in top diameter, 5.5 cm in bottom diameter, the Palace Museum, Beijing
碗口微撇出边，圈足起弦线。碗上部光素，下部凸雕十三枚莲瓣，每瓣内以细线勾勒筋脉。深紫色砂泥，细润光洁。底有篆书“惠逸公制”四字印章款。惠逸公为清雍正、乾隆时期的宜兴紫砂名匠。The upper part of the purple clay bowl is smooth and undecorated with a slightly broad brim. The lower part is embossed with thirteen delicately carved lotus petal patterns with a round foot and string pattern at the bottom. It is made by Huiyigong, a celebrated purple clay pottery master in Yixing during the reigns of Yongzheng and Qianlong in the Qing dynasty, as indicated in the inscription of seal script at the bottom.
Furniture / Ornament
Rosewood Bed with Lotus Patterns
清中期 高116.5厘米 长224厘米 宽132.5厘米 现藏于北京故宫博物院
Mid Qing dynasty, 116.5 cm in height, 224 cm in length, 132.5 cm in width, the Palace Museum, Beijing
此床紫檀质，面装屉盘，面下束腰，鼓腿彭牙，内翻马蹄足，床面上装三屏风式床围。束腰及牙条浮雕荷花莲蓬纹，腿、足部雕密不露地的荷花纹，床围透雕荷花莲蓬纹。此床的雕刻采用穿枝过梗的手法，使得纹饰彼此贯通，连成一体。荷花枝叶蔓延，生动逼真，与木材之坚形成鲜明的对比，当得起“工精料良”四字。The rosewood bed is inlaid with a mat surface with the back splat and two side posts installed around it, hollowed out with patterns of lotus blossom and seedpods. The batten beneath the mat, decorated with the same patterns, is curved inward to connect with arc-shaped legs and horse-hoof-shaped bases with lotus patterns. The vivid interlocking flowers, leaves and stems are in contrast to the hardness of the wood, making it a representative artwork of quality material and refined craftsmanship.
Clock Inlaid on a Lotus Pot
清乾隆 缸高154厘米 缸直径68厘米 现藏于北京故宫博物院
Qianlong reign, Qing dynasty, 154 cm in height, 68 cm in diameter, the Palace Museum, Beijing
此钟是用广东制的铜缸和法国制的八音机器组装而成。缸体錾刻花草纹，缸的腹部嵌能报时、走时的小表，与之相对的一边的玻璃画框里有游鱼、水法景致。缸中盛开荷花，以镜表示水面，水面上画有游鱼、水草。缸中五朵荷花底部有拉杆与机芯连接，拉杆一收缩，花瓣则张开，拉杆一放松，花瓣就闭合。The clock is made of a copper pot produced in Guangdong and mechanical devices made in France. The pot is embossed with patterns of flowers and plants and inlaid with a clock. Opposite to the clock is a framed glass panel decorated with swimming fish and fountain. A mirror representing water surface is installed below lotus blossom with fish and plants drawn on it. The five lotus flowers are connected to a pull pod in the pot that controls the folding and unfolding of petals.
To see a world in a grain of sand
And a heaven in a wild flower
Lotus never ceases to bloom in the river of history. Now that we have appreciated the imagery of lotus in history, it is time to come back to the current world and view the lotus blossom across China, to see how lotus inspires artists and to experience the Chinese philosophy of inner peace.
Video provided by China Xinhua News Network Corporation
浙江杭州 西湖 映日荷花 – 韩志雅
West Lake, Hangzhou, Zhejiang – Han Zhiya
Xuanwu Lake, Nanjing, Jiangsu
安徽合肥 包公园 曲廊荷风 – 李志宏
Baogong Garden, Hefei, Anhui – Li Zhihong
河北 南湖 曲栈清荷
South Lake, Hebei
湖南常德 接天莲叶无穷碧 – 徐忠诚
Changde, Hunan – Xu Zhongcheng
山东 微山湖 荷花
Weishan Lake, Shandong
Tengzhou Lotus Wetland, Zaozhuang, Shandong
Baiyangdian Lake, Hebei
说到中国文化的博大精深，就不得不提大众喜闻乐见的饮食文化。有美器，自然有美食，随着这场跨越时空的赏莲之旅接近尾声，与大家分享一道软糯香甜的桂花糖藕和外酥里嫩的炸荷花，在炎炎夏日吃出好心情。Chinese cuisine is an indispensable and delightful part of Chinese culture. Exquisite tableware should always serve delicate food. At the end of this trip of lotus appreciation, we share with you the recipes of honey glazed lotus root and fried lotus petal for you to better enjoy the summer.
Honey Glazed Lotus Root with Jujube and Osmanthus
Video provided by chinaculture.org
Fried Lotus Petal
Pick the most tender white lotus petals from the inner layers
Cut the bottom part, spread red bean paste on the center of a petal, and cover it with another
Whisk together egg whites and flour in a bowl
Coat the petals with flour paste and fry in medium oil temperature
Take it out after both sides are done
Double fry it in higher oil temperature, keep stirring with chopsticks, and take it out when it is crispy
Facebook: China Cultural Center in Stockholm
Wechat: 斯德哥尔摩中国文化中心 or scan the QR code below