二十四节气——大暑

24 Solar Terms – Dashu (Great Heat)

今年农历六月初二是中国二十四节气中的第12个节气——大暑,也是夏季的最后一个节气,对应的公历日期是7月22日。大暑节气正值“三伏”(初伏、中伏和末伏的统称,今年为7月16日至8月24日),是我国一年中日照最多、气温最高的时期,俗称的“三大火炉”(重庆、武汉、南京)也最旺。这个时节阳光猛烈、高温潮湿多雨,虽不免有湿热难熬之苦,却十分有利于农作物成长,喜热作物在此期间成长最快。
 
Dashu (Great Heat), the 12th solar term of the year and the last one in summer, falls on July 22 this year, which is the 2nd of the sixth month according to Chinese lunar calendar. Dashu arrives during “the three periods of the hot season” (sanfu in Chinese, which is from July 16 to August 24 this year), when the sunlight and temperature peak in China. The three “Furnaces”, namely Chongqing, Wuhan and Nanjing, may be the hottest cities in China. The strong sunlight, high temperature and humidity may not be favorable to people, but good for agricultural development. Crops of the warm season enjoy their fastest period of growth around Dashu.

从古至今,民间都有大暑饮伏茶的习俗,由金银花、夏枯草、甘草等十多味中草药煮成的茶水,有清凉祛暑的作用。起源于山西、河南等地的晒伏姜习俗,指三伏天时将生姜切片或榨汁后加入红糖,装入容器中蒙上纱布,于太阳下晾晒。充分融合后食用,对老寒胃、伤风咳嗽等有奇效。此外,在广东会吃“仙草”,也称凉粉草,可制成全国颇受欢迎的消暑甜品烧仙草;还有福建吃荔枝、台湾吃凤梨、山东喝羊汤等习俗。
 
Traditionally, people drink herbal tea made of honeysuckle, selfheal, liquorice and a variety of herbs to cool off in the heat. Some regions, including Shanxi and Henan provinces, maintain the tradition to make ginger syrup. Mix ginger slices or juice with brown sugar in a container covered with gauze and put it under the sun. After it is fully blended, the ginger syrup is specially effective to cure stomach cold and cough due to common cold. In Guangdong, people eat mesona around Dashu, which is usually made into a popular jelly dessert. Other traditions include eating litchi in Fujian, pineapple in Taiwan and having lamb soup in Shandong.

在这一年中最热的时节,咱们不妨到火炉之一的重庆云游一番。这座富有山地建筑、火锅沸腾的城市,伴着浓烈具有刺痛感的味觉冲击,带给你一段火辣热情的夏日体验。
 
In the hottest season of the year, it’ll be fun to visit one of the “furnace” cities – Chongqing. This mountainous city famous for hot pots will give you a unique summer experience.
 

视频由新华社CNC提供
Video provided by China Xinhua News Network Corporation
 

云游中国——重庆

Visit China Online – Chongqing

重庆,位于中国西南部,是中国中西部唯一的直辖市,长江上游地区的经济、金融、科创、航运和商贸物流中心,以江城、雾都、桥都著称,又以山城扬名。在重庆居住的3000多万人口中,包含着中国全部55个少数民族,主要为土家族、苗族等,使重庆不仅坐拥山环水抱的大美自然,彰显传统与现代交融的都市风景,更展现着各族人文风情的无限魅力。
 
Located in southwestern China, Chongqing is the only municipality directly under the central government in central-western China. As the center of economy, finance, science and technology innovation, shipping and trade logistics in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, Chongqing is known as the “Mountain City” and is nicknamed “City of Fog, Rivers and Bridges”. All 55 Chinese ethnic minority groups, mostly Tujia and Miao peoples, live in Chongqing, constituting a vital part of its over 30 million population. As a result, Chongqing features not only the distinctive natural landscape and surreal cityscape, but also diverse and appealing cultural elements of all ethnic groups.
 

视频由重庆市文化和旅游发展委员会提供

Video provided by Chongqing Municipal Commission of Culture and Tourism Development

 

  魔幻 · 都市  

  Surreal · Cityscape  

赛博朋克、魔幻8D、网红城市——重庆,在近几年一跃成为中国乃至世界最受欢迎的旅游目的地之一。顺应山势的建筑街道赋予其别具一格的城市景观:依崖而建的十一层巴渝传统吊脚楼洪崖洞、穿楼而过的李子坝站轻轨、汽车轻轨上下并行的两江大桥、中国最复杂的黄桷湾立交桥等等。在重庆,不仅分东西南北四个方向,还有上下两个维度。如果你的打车软件显示司机已经到达,而你却找不到时,司机也可能正在你头上或脚下一层的桥上找你。如果向当地人问路,他们会告诉你,去往某条路最近的方式是进入前面的商场,坐电梯到某一层再出来。如果你正坐在长江边赏风景,你会发现,空中飞机、长江索道,江上游轮、货船,桥上轻轨、街上汽车,人类向海陆空的延伸会在某个时刻同时映入眼帘,交织出一幅绚烂的现代生活图景。
 
Cyberpunk, surreal and eight-dimensional, top attraction – Chongqing has been one of the most popular tourist destinations in China and around the world in recent years. Distinctive urban landscape is viewed in this city built on mountains: Hongya Cave, a 11-storey traditional local stilt house abutting a steep cliff; Liziba station, where the light rail goes right through a residential building; Twin River Bridges, two cable-stayed bridges with vertically parallel decks for motor vehicles and light rail; Huangjuewan Overpass, a 5-storey maze connecting 20 ramps and 8 roads and probably the most complicated one in China……and the list goes on. In Chongqing, apart from east, west, north and south, one should also consider the upward and downward directions. When your taxi-hailing app shows that the driver has arrived but you could not see anything, the driver is probably looking for you on the other level of the road as well. If you ask the locals for direction, they may tell you that the best way to go to a certain road is to enter the shopping mall besides you, and exit on a different floor. At some point, you can view all sorts of vehicles by the Yangtze River, from the airplane and Yangtze River cableway in the sky, to cruises and ships on the river, light rail on the bridge and motors on the street, weaving a magical modern cityscape right in front of you.
Image by Ethan Zhan
洪崖洞 Hongya Cave
两江大桥 Twin River Bridges / Photo by Jerry Wang

长江索道 Yangtze River Cableway
国泰艺术中心 Guotai Arts Center / Photo by John Salvino
四川美术学院 Sichuan Fine Arts Institute / www.scfai.edu.cn

贰厂文创公园  Testbed 2 Arts Center
Photo by Chenyu Guan
轻轨李子坝站 Liziba Station / Photo by Billow 926
Image by Ethan Zhan
Image by Sury0820
Photo by Billow 926 
  

灵奇 · 山水  

Distinctive · Landscape  

重庆不仅拥有魔幻立体的都市景观,也因其独特迷人的山水地貌闻名。重庆武隆和金佛山作为“中国南方喀斯特”地貌的组成部分,于2014年被联合国教科文组织列入世界自然遗产。雄伟险峻的巫山小三峡,峰与天关接、舟从地窟行,林木翠竹,峻岭奇峰,变幻无穷;举世罕见的武隆喀斯特地貌,溶洞、天坑、地缝、峡谷、峰丛、高山草原,讴歌大自然的鬼斧神工;“中国最美养生峡谷”万盛黑山谷,集“山水泉林洞”于一体,融“奇险峻秀幽”于一身……在重庆,将自然的万般造化尽收眼底。
 
Chongqing enjoys a surreal and magical cityscape, as well as unique and charming natural landscape. Wulong and Jinfo Mountain in Chongqing, as a part of the element South China Karst, was inscribed as UNESCO world natural heritage in 2014. The majestic Wushan Mountain and Lesser Three Gorges feature peculiar peaks reaching up to the sky and lush vegetation, where boats sail on rivers running through underground caves; the spectacular Wulong Karst, an ode to the incredible craftsmanship of nature, encompass karst caves, dolines, gorges, peak clusters and alpine meadows and a range of other landforms; Wansheng Black Mountain Valley, praised as “the most beautiful valley of health preservation” in China, is a scenic zone of wondrous scenery featuring steep mountains, sparkling streams, enchanted forests and secluded caves. In Chongqing, one is able to view all kinds of creation of nature.
南川金佛山  Jinfo Mountain, Nanchuan district
武隆天生三桥 Three Natural Bridges, Wulong district
梁平县百里竹海 Bamboo Forest, Liangping county / 曾卫民 Zeng Weimin
武陵山 Wuling Mountain
江津四面山 望乡仙境  Simian Mountain, Jiangjin district / 谢洪均 Xie Hongjun
万盛区 石林仙境 Celestial Stone Forest, Wansheng district

酉阳县 阿蓬江大峡谷 Apeng River Valley, Youyang county

酉阳桃花源 Taohuayuan Scenic Area, Youyang county / 杨孟 Yang Meng
巫山小三峡 Lesser Three Gorges, Wushan county
万盛黑山谷  Wansheng Black Mountain Valley
 万盛黑山谷  Wansheng Black Mountain Valley
垫江县 迎风湖国家湿地公园 Yingfeng Lake National Wetland Park, Dianjiang county
沙坪坝区 融汇温泉 Ronghui Hot Springs, Shapingba district

秀山川河盖 童话世界 Fairyland of Chuanhegai, Xiushan county / 唐磊 Tang Lei

 绮丽 · 人文

Colorful · Culture

重庆多民族融合的人文生态,全面展现并保护着各族独具魅力的文化瑰宝与民俗风情。大足石刻以其宏大的规模、丰富的题材、精湛的雕刻与重要的历史、科学和艺术价值,于1999年被联合国教科文组织列入世界文化遗产;围绕涪陵白鹤梁石刻修建的中国第一座水下博物馆,记载了长江1200余年间72年的水位变化资料,被联合国教科文组织誉为“世界第一古代水文站”;“诗城”奉节白帝城、铜梁安居古城、荣昌万灵古镇、(苗族始祖)蚩尤九黎城……静卧山水之间,穿越悠悠千载,继续承载着重庆源远流长的文化根脉。
 
Diverse and integrated cultural landscape of Chongqing fully displays and protects the appealing cultural treasures and folk customs of all ethnic groups. Dazu Rock Carvings were listed as world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1999 due to their grand scale, remarkable aesthetic quality, rich diversity of subject matter and significant historical, scientific and artistic values. Baiheliang Underwater Museum, the first underwater museum in China, is built based on Baiheliang Ancient Hydrological Inscription recording 72 years of water level variation data in over 1200 years and is endorsed by UNESCO as the “No.1 Ancient Hydrometric Station in the World”. Baidi City, the “City of Poetry”; Anju Ancient Town, Tongliang county; Wanling Ancient Town, Rongchang district; Chiyou (ancestor of the Miao people) Jiuli City…… all these ancient towns have been lying in the nature for thousands of years and continue to preserve the roots of local culture.
巴山渝水孕育出重庆独特的地域文化,也绵延流淌在李白、杜甫、白居易、李商隐、苏轼、黄庭坚等众多诗人的灿烂诗篇中。这些传诵千古的诗句,将巴渝的山水风光如画卷般展开,字字如丝如缕,引我们走入古人绚烂的精神世界。
 
The mountains and rivers in Chongqing have nurtured a unique local culture that shines in the classic poems of acclaimed poets throughout history – Li Bai, Du Fu, Bai Juyi, Li Shangyin, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, etc. Their epic poems, depicting and revealing the magnificent scenery as scroll paintings, may lead us to the splendid spiritual worlds of the ancients.

早发白帝城

唐 · 李白

朝辞白帝彩云间,千里江陵一日还。

两岸猿声啼不住,轻舟已过万重山。

 

离思五首·其四

唐 · 元稹

曾经沧海难为水,除却巫山不是云。

取次花丛懒回顾,半缘修道半缘君。

 

Leaving the White Emperor Town at Dawn

Li Bai, Tang dynasty

Leaving at dawn the White Emperor crowned with cloud;

I’ve sailed a thousand miles through Gorges in a day.

With monkeys’ sad adieux the riverbanks are loud;

My skiff has left ten thousand mountains far away.

 

Think of My Dear Wife

Yuan Zhen, Tang dynasty

No water’s enough when you have crossed the sea;

No cloud is beautiful but that which crowns the peak.

I pass by flowers that fail to attract poor me;

Half for your sake and half for Taoism I seek.

 

(Translated by Xu Yuanchong)

 
大足石刻 千手观音 Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Guanyin, Dazu Rock Carvings
涪陵 白鹤梁石刻 Baiheliang Ancient Hydrological Inscription, Fuling district
奉节县 白帝城 Baidi City, Fengjie count

彭水县 蚩尤九黎城 九黎神柱 Jiuli Sacred Pillar, Chiyou Jiuli City, Pengshui county
荣昌万灵古镇 大荣桥之晨 Darong Bridge in the Morning, Wanling Ancient Town, Rongchang district

铜梁安居古城 Anju Ancient Town, Tongliang district

秀山边城风光 Border Town Xiushan County / 田余君 Tian Yujun
合川钓鱼城 Hechuan Fishing Town
忠县 石宝寨 Shibaozhai Fortress, Zhong county
梁平县晒秋节 Sun-dried Autumn Festival, Liangping county
酉阳县 龙潭古镇 Longtan Ancient Town, Youyang county

麻辣 · 美食

Spicy · Cuisine

重庆作为移民之城,在有记载的三千年历史长河中,就有多达七次大规模移民潮。因此,麻、辣、鲜、香的渝菜,脱胎于川菜体系,又能博采众长,将百菜百味融合创新。除了著名的重庆火锅、小面、泉水鸡、烤鱼等,重庆还建立渝菜标准体系,推出了12道标准化渝菜,分别是回锅肉、口袋豆腐、毛血旺、辣子鸡、鱼香大虾、鸡豆花、家常海参、渝味鹿筋、干烧江团、樟香鸭子、陈皮兔丁、清炖牛尾汤。麻得到位,辣得彻底——豪爽率直的重庆人,做出酣畅淋漓的巴渝菜。
 
As an immigrant city, Chongqing received at least seven waves of immigration in the recorded history of 3000 years. Consequently, Chongqing cuisine featuring pungency, spiceness and tastiness, has its origin from Sichuan cuisine and absorbs a variety of flavors to create its own style. Apart from the popular Chongqing hot pot, Chongqing noodles (Xiaomian), spring chicken and grilled fish, Chongqing also sets up a series of cuisine standards for 12 dishes, namely double cooked pork slices, stuffed tofu soup, Chongqing-style boiled blood curd, spicy chicken, sweet and sour prawns, chicken tofu pudding, home-style sea cucumbers, Chongqing-style deer sinews, dry fried longsnout catfish, roasted duck with camphor tree and tea leaves, diced rabbit with dried tangerine peels and ox tail soup. Only the vigorous and forthright Chongqing people can create pleasantly pungent and intensely spicy Chongqing cuisine
重庆火锅 Chongqing Hot Pot
重庆火锅 Chongqing Hot Pot
重庆小面 Chongqing Noodles (Xiaomian)
烤鱼 Grilled Fish
毛血旺 Boild Blood Curd
水煮鱼 Poached Fish Filets in Chili Oil

串串 Spicy Skewers
​酸辣粉 Hot and Sour Rice Noodles
Image by RVAJ 
Image by RVAJ 

麻辣小龙虾 Spicy Crayfish

中国和瑞典对小龙虾有着同样的热爱。在中国,除了风靡全国的麻辣小龙虾,香辣、红烧、蒜香、碳烤、啤酒小龙虾等各种口味也深受欢迎。在瑞典,每年8月,人们会纷纷在室外举行小龙虾派对 (kräftskivor),以庆祝夏季的结束。16世纪时,小龙虾是瑞典贵族专属的奢侈品。如今,它已成为人人都可享用的美食,很多人都会去自行捕捞。瑞典人最喜欢煮小龙虾,要加上大把皇冠莳萝和盐。餐桌上摆好纸质桌布和彩色盘子,周围挂上鲜艳的纸灯笼,最受欢迎的图案是一轮微笑的满月。人们脖子上系着围兜,头戴滑稽的纸帽子。在小龙虾派对上,要直接用手食用作为冷餐的小龙虾。大声吮吸汁水是完全可以接受的行为。佐餐食物是面包和成熟的西博滕奶酪 (Västerbottensost) 等味道浓烈的奶酪。人们一般会饮用啤酒,当然,也少不了烈酒schnapps。
 
China and Sweden share a common interest in crayfish. In China, pungent and spicy crayfish is popular across the nation, as well as braised crayfish in chili / garlic / soy sauce / with beer and grilled crayfish, etc. In Sweden, people hold outdoor crayfish party every August to celebrate the end of summer. Eaten only by Sweden’s upper-class citizens and aristocracy in the 1500s, crayfish have become a national delicacy enjoyed by all. Indeed, many people like to catch their own crayfish. The most popular way of cooking crayfish is to boil them in brine with plenty of crown dill. Paper tablecloth and colourful plates are arranged with gaily coloured paper lanterns hung around the table. The most popular type of lantern shows a smiling full moon. People wear bibs around their necks and comic paper hats on their heads. You eat crayfish cold, with your fingers. Sucking noisily to extract the juices is perfectly acceptable behaviour. Bread and a strong cheese such as mature Västerbotten are side dishes. People mostly drink beer and the inevitable schnapps.
Anna Hållams/imagebank.sweden.se
Anna Hållams/imagebank.sweden.se
Carolina Romare/imagebank.sweden.se
资料来源 / Resources:

重庆市文化和旅游发展委员会 http://whlyw.cq.gov.cn/

https://en.unesco.org/

http://global.chinadaily.com.cn/

https://sweden.se/

https://imagebank.sweden.se/

相关链接 / Related link小暑看莲 —— 中国文化中的莲花寓意 暨斯德哥尔摩中国文化中心小暑节气特展 | Imagery of Lotus

 


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